My primary areas of interest are early modern philosophy and questions about the mental and moral status of nonhuman animals. My current research project focuses on Descartes' approach to the question of animal minds and early modern reactions to this aspect of Cartesianism. My candidacy project provided an interpretation of Descartes' argument for his view that animals are mindless machines. I am currently writing about the ways in which early moderns objected to Descartes' view of animals and what these objections reveal about the Cartesian philosophy. Besides my research in early modern philosophy, I also read contemporary work in cognitive ethology and animal ethics. With respect to animal ethics, I am particularly familiar with the philosophical issues relating to ethical veganism.